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Milestones in dialysis and transplantation

Haemodialysis | Peritoneal dialysis | Transplantation

Read a more detailed account of the early days of dialysis

Table showing important milestones. Links from the tables are mostly to our own pages. Here is a selection of external resources

Milestones in the development of modern haemodialysis
1861 The process of dialysis was first described by Thomas Graham (Glasgow) More
1913 Artificial kidney developed - John Abel (Baltimore) More
1924 First human dialysis - George Haas (Giessen) More
1943 Rotating drum dialyzer - Kolff and Berk (Kampen) - the first practical dialyser More
1946 Coil dialyzers - George Murray (Canada), Nils Alwall (Sweden; more)
1946-7 First dialyses in Britain - Bywaters and Joekes (Hammersmith); Darmady (Portsmouth)
1948 Kolff-Brigham machine. As used in the Korean war for acute renal failure
1955 Twin coil dialyzer - Watschinger and Kolff More
1956-7 Dialysis recommenced in the UK in Leeds (Parsons), London (Shackman) and RAF Halton (Jackson) Report from Edinburgh on these centres in 1958
1960 Kiil dialyzer (Oslo) Picture
1960 Scribner shunt (Seattle) More
1960 Clyde Shields (d1971), Harvey Gentry (d1987) commenced haemodialysis in Seattle - the first long-term dialysis patients Read a contemporary account
1961 Dialysis using a domestic washing machine (later leading to the Maytag program in Cleveland; Nose, Japan) More
1964 Home dialysis introduced by Shaldon (London), Scribner (Seattle), Merrill (Boston) More
1965 Hepatitis outbreaks in the UK More - hepatitis in Edinburgh, 1969
1966 Internal AV fistula developed - Brescia, Cimino (New York) More
1972 Aluminium toxicity More
1975 Haemofiltration introduced (Henderson, Quellhorst)
1977 Continuous arteriovenous haemofiltration described
1981 Dialysis-related amyloidosis described
1986 Recombinant erythropoietin introduced


Milestones in the development of peritoneal dialysis
1744 Peritoneal lavage undertaken by the Rev. Stephen Hales
1877 Experimental studies of the peritoneum
1923 First human peritoneal dialysis - Ganter
1946 Treatment of acute renal failure by PD - Frank, Seligman, Fine (Boston); Reid (UK); Tanret (Paris); Kop (Netherlands) More
1959 Intermittent PD - Ruben and Doolan (Oakland, CA)
1964 Repeated puncture method introduced More
1965 Stylet catheter (Trocath) introduced
1968 Tenckhoff catheter introduced
1976 CAPD describe - Moncrieff and Popovich (Austin, Texas) More
1981 CCPD


Thanks to Stewart Cameron for correcting and improving these tables.

Milestones in kidney transplantation
1933 First human renal transplant (unsuccessful) - Voronoy More
1936 Histocompatibility antigens described in mice - Snell
1944 Accelerated rejection of a second transplant described in rabbits - Medawar
1954 First successful human renal transplant, between identical twins - Murray and Merril (Boston) More
1962 First successful cadaver transplant and first use of azathioprine - Murray and Calne More
1962 Second use of azathioprine - Edinburgh's third renal transplant More
1965 Tissue typing using white blood cells - van Rood/ van Leeuwen, Terasaki
1976 UK brain death guidelines facilitate retrieval from heart-beating cadaveric donors
1983 Cyclosporine licensed as new immunosuppressive drug


(no previous) | History | >> Early development

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