Infections causing renal disease

Post-infectious glomerulonephritis, classically occurring 10 days after a Streptococcal infection, is now uncommon in the developed world.  More commonly glomerulonephritis is associated with current infection, notably bacterial endocarditis.  Various infections (leptospirosis, viral infections) may cause a tubulointerstitial nephritis.

Infections in patients on dialysis

Infections are the second most common cause of death in patients on long-term dialysis, after cardiovascular disease.  Some of these are related to dialysis access, but many are common bacterial pneumonias and other infections.  Patients with ESRF have multiple defects in leukocyte and immune function, including responses to vaccines. Tuberculosis is increased in frequency in the dialysis as well as the transplant populations.

Infections in patients after renal transplantation and on treatment with immunosuppressive drugs

Early after renal transplantation there is a risk of Pneumocystis pneumonia, and various viral infections (notably the herpesviruses, including Epstein Barr virus and CMV) are both more frequent and more severe.  Viral infections probably account for much of the increase in lymphoma and cervical malignancy, and perhaps some other tumours, in transplant patients.

Further info

Postinfectious glomerulonephritis in Glomerulonephritis tutorial (Lecture 2)