Milestones in dialysis and transplantation

Read a more detailed account of the early days of dialysis

Table showing important milestones. Links from the tables are mostly to our own pages. Here is a selection of external resources

Milestones in the development of modern haemodialysis

1861 The process of dialysis was first described by Thomas Graham (Glasgow) – More
1913 Artificial kidney developed – John Abel (Baltimore) – More
1924 First human dialysis – George Haas (Giessen) – More
1943 Rotating drum dialyzer – Kolff and Berk (Kampen) – the first practical dialyser – More
1946 Coil dialyzers – George Murray (Canada), Nils Alwall (Sweden; more)
1946-7 First dialyses in Britain – Bywaters and Joekes (Hammersmith); Darmady (Portsmouth)
1948 Kolff-Brigham machine. As used in the Korean war for acute renal failure
1955 Twin coil dialyzer – Watschinger and Kolff – More
1956-7 Dialysis recommenced in the UK in Leeds (Parsons), London (Shackman) and RAF Halton (Jackson) – Report from Edinburgh on these centres in 1958
1960 Kiil dialyzer (Oslo) – Picture
1960 Scribner shunt (Seattle) – More
1960 Clyde Shields (d1971), Harvey Gentry (d1987) commenced haemodialysis in Seattle – the first long-term dialysis patients – Read a contemporary account
1961 Dialysis using a domestic washing machine (later leading to the Maytag program in Cleveland; Nose, Japan) – More
1964 Home dialysis introduced by Shaldon (London), Scribner (Seattle), Merrill (Boston) – More
1965 Hepatitis outbreaks in the UK – More – hepatitis in Edinburgh, 1969
1966 Internal AV fistula developed – Brescia, Cimino (New York) – More
1972 Aluminium toxicity – More
1975 Haemofiltration introduced (Henderson, Quellhorst)
1977 Continuous arteriovenous haemofiltration described
1981 Dialysis-related amyloidosis described
1986 Recombinant erythropoietin introduced