Innovations and research

Innovations and research areas related to Renal Medicine or Transplantation in Edinburgh in the 1960s to 1990s

New inventions:

1961 Fluon arterio-venous shunt for repeated haemodialysis, by Mr I Sinclair, Mr M Henderson and Dr D Simpson (Sinclair et al, 1961)
1964 Regional heparinisation developed by Dr Howard Davies, haematologist at RIE

Main research areas:

site of action of diuretics (references 1- 3)
effects of potassium depletion on the kidney (reference 4)
acid-base disequilibrium in dialysed patients (reference 5)
treatment of minimal lesion glomerulonephritis with steroids (reference 6)
nature of protein in glomerulonephritis (references 7- 9)
nature of glomerular disease (references 10, 11)
fibrin-degradation products in patients with renal disease (reference 12)
aluminium-induced anaemia, aluminium-induced bone disease and other effects of aluminium in dialysis patients (references 13-17)
effects of nephrectomy on anaemia in patients with chronic renal disease (reference 18)
plasma exchange programme for treating severe renal disease (references 19-21)
prostaglandin levels during sodium chloride infusion (reference 22)
kallikrein-kinin and rennin-angiotensin systems in nephrotic syndrome (references 23-25)
other studies on prostaglandins and kallikrein (references 26-29)
peritoneal dialysis (references 30, 31)
development of the first successful recombinant vaccine against the hepatitis B virus (reference 32)
development of techniques for producing transgenic mice (reference 33)
tumour immunology (references 34, 35)
transplantation immunology, including the mode of action of anti-lymphocyte globulins (ALG), the aspect of immune response suppressed by ALG and the nature of ALG and application of ALG to human renal transplantation (references 36-39)
human renal transplantation (references 40-44)

References for main research areas:

1. Robson JS et al. The effect of chlorothiazide in diabetes insipidus with particular reference to the osmolality of the serum. Metabolism. 1962; 1: 1041-53.
2. Lambie AT et al. The effect of mersalyl on the renal tubular reabsorption of solute free water. Clinical science. 1961; 20: 123-9.
3. Fraser AG et al. The effects of furosemide on the osmolality of the urine and the composition of renal tissue. Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics. 1967; 158: 475-86.
4. MacDonald MK et al. The nephropathy pf experimental potassium deficiency. An electron microscopic study. Quarterly Journal of Experimental physiology. 1962; 47: 262-72.
5. Lambie AT et al. Intracellular hydrogen ion concentration in renal acidosis. Clinical Science. 1965; 28: 237-49.
6. MacDonald MK et al. Resolution of glomerular lesions in the nephrotic syndrome treated with cortisone: electron microscopic studies in an adult case. Scottish Medical Journal. 1959; 4: 415-21.
7. Petrie JJ et al. Glomerular permeability to serum proteins and high molecular weight dextrans in glomerulonephritis. Clinical Science. 1968; 34: 83-95.
8. Petrie JJ et al. Protein selectivity in the assessment of patients with proteinuria. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine. 1973; 3: 480-5.
9. Cumming AD et al. Significance of urinary C3 excretion in glomerulonephritis. Journal of Clinical Pathology. 1976; 29: 601-7.
10. Petrie JJ et al. Glomerular permeability during proteinuria induced by plasma infusion. Clinical Science. 1970; 39: 383-9.
11. Davison AM et al. The role of the mesangial cell in proliferative glomerulonephritis. Journal of Clinical Pathology. 1973; 26: 198-208.
12. Clarkson AR et al. Serum and urinary fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products in glomerulonephritis. BMJ. 1971; 3: 447-51.
13. Petrie JJ, Fleming R, McKinnon P, Winney RJ, Cowie J. The use of ion exchange to remove aluminium from water used in haemodialysis. American journal of kidney diseases. 1984; 4: 69-74.
14. Winney RJ et al. Epidemiology of aluminium toxicity in a ‘low incidence’ area. Contributions to Nephrology. 1984; 38: 47-58.
15. Winney RJ et al. What is the value of plasma/serum aluminum in patients with chronic renal failure? Clinical Nephrology. 1985; 24 Suppl 1: S2-8.
16. Winney RJ et al. Role of plasma aluminum in the detection and prevention of aluminum toxicity. Kidney International 1986; 18 Suppl4: S91-5.
17. Smith GD et al. Aluminium-related osteomalacia: response to reverse osmosis water treatment. Kidney International. 1987; 32: 96-101.
18. Gibson P et al. Bilateral nephrectomy and haemodialysis for the treatment of severe loin pain haematuria syndrome. Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation. 1994; 9: 1640-1.
19. Swainson CP et al. Plasma exchange in severe glomerulonephritis–who benefits? Proceedings of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association. 1983; 19: 732-7.
20. Bell GM et al. Crescentic glomerulonephritis- which patients should be treated with plasma exchange? Life Support Systems. 1983; 1 Suppl 1: 92-4.
21. Swainson CP et al. Treatment of Goodpasture’s disease by plasma exchange and immunosuppression. Clinical & Experimental Immunology. 1978; 32: 233-42.
22. Watson ML et al. Prostaglandins and kallikrein during volume expansion in normal man. Contributions to Nephrology. 1984; 41: 31-4.
23. Cumming AD et al. The plasma kallikrein kinin system in severely ill and traumatised patients. Archives of Emergency Medicine. 1984; 1: 135-42.
24. Cumming AD et al. Urinary kallikrein excretion in glomerulonephritis and nephrotic syndrome. Nephron. 1985; 39: 206-10.
25. Cumming AD et al. The kallikrein-kinin and renin-angiotensin systems in nephrotic syndrome. Nephron. 1989; 51: 185-91.
26. Watson ML et al. Role of prostaglandins in mediating excretion by the kidney of an intravenous infusion of sodium chloride in normal human subjects. Clinical Science. 1982; 62: 27-33.
27. Mackay IG et al. Contribution of prostaglandins to the systemic and renal vascular response to frusemide in normal man. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1984; 17: 513-9.
28. Watson ML et al. Prostaglandins and kallikrein during volume expansion in normal man. Contributions to Nephrology. 1984; 41: 31-4.
29. Watson ML et al. Urinary kallikrein and systemic prostacyclin synthesis during sodium chloride infusion in normal man. Clinical Science. 1985; 68: 537-43.
30. Cumming AD et al. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in Edinburgh. Proceedings of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, Tercentenary Congress, 1981, pages 303-4.
31. Cumming AD et al. Acute aluminium intoxication in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Lancet. 1982; 9: 103-4.
32. Marmion BP. Prospects for new viral vaccines. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London – Series B: Biological Sciences. 1980; 290: 395-407.
33. Hooper M et al. HPRT-deficient (Lesch-Nyhan) mouse embryos derived from germline colonization by cultured cells. Nature. 1987; 326 (6110): 292-5.
34. James K et al. The effect of Corynebacterium parvum therapy on immunoglobulin class and IgG subclass levels in cancer patients. British Journal of Cancer. 1975; 32: 310-22.
35. Alexandroff AB et al. BCG immunotherapy of bladder cancer: 20 years on. Lancet. 1999; 353: 1689-94.
36. Woorduff MFA, Forman B. Effect of antilymphocyte serum on suspensions of lymphocytes in vitro. Nature. 1951; 168: 35.
37. Woorduff MFA, Forman B. Effect of antilymphocyte serum on suspensions of lymphocytes in vitro. Nature. 1951; 168: 35.
38. Woodruff MFA, Anderson NA. Effect of lymphocyte depletion by thoracic duct fistula and administration of anti-lymphocyte serum on the survival of skin homografts in rats. Nature. 16 November, 1963: 200: 702.
39. James K, Jubb VS. Effect of anti-rat lymphocyte antibody on humoral antibody formation. Nature. 1967; 215 (5099): 367-71.
40. Woodruff MFA et al.. Transplantation of a kidney from an identical twin. Lancet. 10 June, 1961, pages 1245-9.
41. Woodruff MFA et al.. Transplantation of a kidney from a brother to sister. British Journal of Urology. 1962; 34: 3-14.
42. Woodruff MF et al. Renal transplantation in man. Experience in 35 cases. Lancet. 1969; 1: 6-12.
43. Kingston A et al. Studies on the lymphocytes of patients with renal homografts. Transplantation. 1971; 12: 305-9.
44. Woodruff MFA et al. Long survival after renal transplantation in man. British Journal of Surgery. 1976; 63: 85-101.